The dynamics of individual microbial populations and their gene functions in agricultural soils, especially after major activities such as nitrogen (N) fertilization, remain elusive but are important for a better understanding of nutrient cycling. Here, we analyzed 20 short-read metagenomes collected at four time points during 1 year from two depths (0 to 5 and 20 to 30 cm) in two Midwestern agricultural sites representing contrasting soil textures (sandy versus silty loam) with similar cropping histories. Although the microbial community taxonomic and functional compositions differed between the two locations and depths, they were more stable within a depth/site throughout the year than communities in natural aquatic ecosystems. For example, among the 69 population genomes assembled from the metagenomes, 75% showed a less than 2-fold change in abundance between any two sampling points. Interestingly, six deep-branching Thaumarchaeota and three complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) Nitrospira populations increased up to 5-fold in abundance upon the addition of N fertilizer. These results indicated that indigenous archaeal ammonia oxidizers may respond faster (are more copiotrophic) to N fertilization than previously thought. None of 29 recovered putative denitrifier genomes encoded the complete denitrification pathway, suggesting that denitrification is carried out by a collection of different populations. Altogether, our study identified novel microbial populations and genes responding to seasonal and human-induced perturbations in agricultural soils that should facilitate future monitoring efforts and N-related studies.
- Seasonal dynamics
- Soil microbiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology