Xenartha, erinacoemorpha, some afrotheria, and phloidota

Dalen Agnew, Sally Nofs, Martha A. Delaney, Jamie L. Rothenburger

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The orders Xenartha (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters), Erinacoemorpha (hedgehogs), Tubuloedentata (aardvarks), Hyrocoidea, (hyraxes), Afrosoricida (tenrec), Macroscelidea (elephant shrews), and Scandentia (tree shrews) are a diverse and increasingly popular group of animals held in zoos and found as important components of ecosystems but this group is generally poorly understood and researched as compared to other species. Many of the diseases seen in these species are likely related to management issues, such as nutritional cardiomyopathy, hemochromatosis, pancreatic islet fibrosis, hyperostosis, hypovitaminosis K, chronic nephritis, dysbiosis, wasting syndromes, or dental disease. Others, such as wobbly hedgehog syndrome appear to have a genetic basis. Neoplasia does not appear to be a major factor in mortality in these species, though some are commonly reported in tree shrews. Viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases are occasionally reported but do not significantly affect populations; however, some are important as zoonoses or important transboundary diseases, such as leprosy in armadillos, influenza A in anteaters, and foot and mouth disease in hedgehogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780128053065
ISBN (Print)9780128092194
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Aardvark
  • Anteater
  • Armadillo
  • Hedgehog
  • Hyrax
  • Pathology
  • Shrew
  • Sloth
  • Tenrec
  • Xenartha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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