Worldwide Correlations Support COVID-19 Seasonal Behavior and Impact of Global Change

Nicolas Hernandez, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many viral diseases exhibit seasonal behavior and can be affected by environmental stressors. Using time-series correlation charts extrapolated from worldwide data, we provide strong support for the seasonal development of COVID-19 regardless of the immunity of the population, behavioral changes, and the periodic appearance of new variants with higher rates of infectivity and transmissibility. Statistically significant latitudinal gradients were also observed with indicators of global change. Using the Environmental Protection Index (EPI) and State of Global Air (SoGA) metrics, a bilateral analysis of environmental health and ecosystem vitality effects showed associations with COVID-19 transmission. Air quality, pollution emissions, and other indicators showed strong correlations with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Remarkably, EPI category and performance indicators also correlated with latitude, suggesting cultural and psychological diversity in human populations not only impact wealth and happiness but also planetary health at latitudinal level. Looking forward, we conclude there will be a need to disentangle the seasonal and global change effects of COVID-19 noting that countries that go against the health of the planet affect health in general.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEvolutionary Bioinformatics
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Active cases
  • Environmental Performance Index
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • State of Global Air
  • correlation analysis
  • latitude
  • mortality
  • seasonal forcing
  • time series

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Computer Science Applications


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