Wireless multi-lateral optofluidic microsystems for real-time programmable optogenetics and photopharmacology

Yixin Wu, Mingzheng Wu, Abraham Vázquez-Guardado, Joohee Kim, Xin Zhang, Raudel Avila, Jin Tae Kim, Yujun Deng, Yongjoon Yu, Sarah Melzer, Yun Bai, Hyoseo Yoon, Lingzi Meng, Yi Zhang, Hexia Guo, Liu Hong, Evangelos E. Kanatzidis, Chad R. Haney, Emily A. Waters, Anthony R. BanksZiying Hu, Ferrona Lie, Leonardo P. Chamorro, Bernardo L. Sabatini, Yonggang Huang, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy, John A Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In vivo optogenetics and photopharmacology are two techniques for controlling neuronal activity that have immense potential in neuroscience research. Their applications in tether-free groups of animals have been limited in part due to tools availability. Here, we present a wireless, battery-free, programable multilateral optofluidic platform with user-selected modalities for optogenetics, pharmacology and photopharmacology. This system features mechanically compliant microfluidic and electronic interconnects, capabilities for dynamic control over the rates of drug delivery and real-time programmability, simultaneously for up to 256 separate devices in a single cage environment. Our behavioral experiments demonstrate control of motor behaviors in grouped mice through in vivo optogenetics with co-located gene delivery and controlled photolysis of caged glutamate. These optofluidic systems may expand the scope of wireless techniques to study neural processing in animal models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5571
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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