End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) affects the recommended screening, incidence, treatment, and mortality of cancer. Cancer occurring in a patient with ESKD can influence candidacy for kidney transplantation as well as dialysis decision-making and cancer treatment. Certain cancers are more common among ESKD patients, notably, viral-mediated cancers that are associated with human papilloma or hepatitis viruses, and urothelial cancers associated with analgesic and Balkan nephropathies. Solid tumors are not believed to occur more frequently in ESKD patients. The presence of ESKD may confer a higher risk of post-surgical complications as well as mortality. The cost-effectiveness of cancer screening depends upon individual cancer risk and estimated overall survival. The high mortality associated with ESKD argues against routine cancer screening in dialysis patients. Cancer treatment in ESKD may be complicated by the need to avoid, adjust doses of and/or coordinate the timing of administration of imaging contrast, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy with dialysis treatments. There is a general dearth of information on the treatment of cancer in ESKD patients. These issues will be discussed, and some general guidelines presented based upon the current literature.
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