Through a review of empirical and practice literature, this chapter describes the different outcomes that result from reporting child maltreatment—screen outs, substantiation, ongoing child protective service, child placement, and referral to differential response—and examines their frequency and predictors. Most reports receive a modest response (screen out or no ongoing protective services). Limitations in information often hamper decision making. Outcomes vary by case characteristics such as child age and by available resources, but there is also enormous unexplained variation across states and communities. More research is needed, including enhanced program evaluations with greater focus on these outcomes.