What counts as the evidence for three-dimensional and four-dimensional spatial representations?

Ranxiao Frances Wang, Whitney N. Street

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The dimension of spatial representations can be assessed by above-chance performance in novel shortcut or spatial reasoning tasks independent of accuracy levels, systematic biases, mosaic/segmentation across space, separate coding of individual dimensions, and reference frames. Based on this criterion, humans and some other animals exhibited sufficient evidence for the existence of three-dimensional and/or four-dimensional spatial representations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-568
Number of pages2
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Physiology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this