Wet etch, dry etch, and MacEtch of β-Ga2O3: A review of characteristics and mechanism

Hsien Chih Huang, Zhongjie Ren, Clarence Chan, Xiuling Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


β-Ga2O3, a promising ultra-wide bandgap material for future high-power electronics and deep-ultraviolet optoelectronics applications, has drawn tremendous attention in recent years due to its wide bandgap of ~ 4.8 eV, high breakdown electric field, and availability of substrates. However, the reported etch behavior of β-Ga2O3 and the quality of etched surfaces, as well as the associated interface characteristics, could limit the performance of β-Ga2O3 devices. In this article, the etchings of β-Ga2O3, including regular wet etching, photoelectrochemical etching (PEC), reactive ion etching (RIE) and metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), are reviewed. A comparison of the etch rate, orientation dependence, aspect ratio, etching mechanism, and surface quality for each of these etching methods is presented and the step-by-step reactions in PEC and MacEtch are proposed to elucidate the etch mechanism. The challenges for these etching techniques for β-Ga2O3 are discussed. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4756-4770
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Materials Research
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 14 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Electronic material
  • Ga
  • Nanostructure
  • Oxide
  • Photochemical
  • Reactive ion etching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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