Wave equation for sound in fluids with vorticity

Santiago Esteban Perez Bergliaffa, Katrina Hibberd, Michael Stone, Matt Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We use Clebsch potentials and an action principle to derive a complete closed system of gauge-invariant equations for sound superposed on a general background flow. Our system reduces to the Unruh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 (1981) 1351] and Pierce [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87 (1990) 2292] wave equations when the flow is irrotational, or slowly varying. We illustrate our formalism by applying it to waves propagating in a uniformly rotating fluid where the sound modes hybridize with inertial waves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-136
Number of pages16
JournalPhysica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Apr 15 2004


  • General linear acoustics
  • Sound in flows

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Applied Mathematics


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