Water-Mediated Hydrogen-Bonded Network on the Cytoplasmic Side of the Schiff Base of the L Photointermediate of Bacteriorhodopsin

Akio Maeda, Judith Herzfeld, Marina Belenky, Richard Needleman, Robert B. Gennis, Sergei P. Balashov, Thomas G. Ebrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The L intermediate in the proton-motive photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin is the starting state for the first proton transfer, from the Schiff base to Asp85, in the formation of the M intermediate. Previous FTIR studies of L have identified unique vibration bands caused by the perturbation of several polar amino acid side chains and several internal water molecules located on the cytoplasmic side of the retinylidene chromophore. In the present FTIR study we describe spectral features of the L intermediate in D2O in the frequency region which includes the N-D stretching vibrations of the backbone amides. We show that a broad band in the 2220-2080 cm-1 region appears in L. By use of appropriate 15N labeling and mutants, the lower frequency side of this band in L is assigned to the amides of Lys216 and Gly220. These amides are coupled to each other, and interact with Thr46 and Val49 in helix B and Asp96 in helix C via weakly H-bonding water molecules that exhibit O-D stretching vibrations at 2621 and 2605 cm-1. These water molecules are part of a hydrogen-bonded network characteristic of L which includes other water molecules located closer to the chromophore that exhibit an O-D stretching vibration at 2589 cm-1. This structure, extending from the Schiff base to the internal proton donor Asp96, stabilizes L and affects the L-to-M transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14122-14129
Number of pages8
Issue number48
StatePublished - Dec 9 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry


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