Water Associated with Whey Protein Investigated by Pulsed NMR

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Proton longitudinal relaxation rates were determined for whey protein powders and suspensions of solids concentration between 0.01 and 2.0 g solids/g water. Data showed three hydration regions. The relationship between relaxation rate and solids content was investigated for each region. The two‐state model with fast exchange was applied to the dilute suspensions and the high‐solids regions. This allowed identification of polymer water and free water states in dilute suspensions and also identification of polymer water and capillary water in high‐solids preparations. For intermediate‐solids mixtures the two‐state model was extended to three water states: polymer, capillary and free. These models enabled calculation of the amount of each water state associated with whey protein at a given moisture content.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1557-1561
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of food science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1991


  • models
  • nuclear‐magnetic‐resonance
  • protein
  • sorption isotherm
  • water
  • water activity
  • water‐states
  • whey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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