Visualization of R410A Flow Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth Tubes under Diabatic Conditions

Cheng Min Yang, Pega Hrnjak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents a novel approach to visualize the flow boiling in round tubes under “diabatic conditions”. In the visualization test section, a 3D printed round tube is placed inside a glass tube with secondary fluid at a higher temperature flowing in the annulus between the two tubes thus providing diabatic conditions. Experimental work was conducted for evaporating R410A flow in a horizontal smooth round tube with the inner diameter of 6.3 mm. Compared to the traditional adiabatic visualization technique, the more realistic evaporative condition is simulated and the developing evaporation process is captured. New insights for the flow behavior at low vapor quality are brought by this diabatic method. The vapor plug occurs at very low vapor quality, and this is attributed to the coalescence of bubbles generated on the heated tube wall. For the intermittent flow, liquid slug triggered by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability affects the nucleation on the tube wall. It brings the fresh liquid to rewet the dry surface and activate the nucleation sites. In addition, heat flux condition affects the heat transfer mechanisms during the flow boiling, and the heat transfer through the nucleate boiling mechanism increases as the heat flux increases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1237-1248
Number of pages12
JournalHeat Transfer Engineering
Issue number15
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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