Visible (670nm) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with indium tin oxide transparent conducting top contacts

R. Thornton, Y. Zou, J. Tramontana, M. Hagerott Crawford, R. P. Schneider, K. D. Choquette

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


This paper reports on the use of indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent top surface contact for red light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), resulting in substantial improvements in both turn on voltage and power output in these devices. For comparison, annular ring structures are fabricated in the same material. A comparison is shown of the voltage and power output of these devices for a fixed implant diameter of 15 μm, and a varying dimension for the metal diameter. It is shown that, whereas the ITO device output increases quadratically with the aperture diameter, the metal device output only does so while the aperture is much smaller than the implant diameter. This is due to the increased resistive heating as the metal aperture approaches the implant diameter dimension. ITO devices can therefore be scaled to large aperture sizes with no obscuration of the aperture by metal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-109
Number of pages2
JournalConference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1995 8th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society. Part 1 (of 2) - San Francisco, CA, USA
Duration: Oct 30 1995Nov 2 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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