Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The semiconductor vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode is introduced and the dominant applications that use the nearly one billion VCSELs that have been deployed world-wide are reviewed. The chapter focusses on fundamental aspects such as the VCSEL device structure, including the distributed Bragg reflector mirrors, the optical cavity and various emission wavelengths, and the means for creating electrical and optical transverse confinement in the laser diode. The critical interplay of the spectral alignment of the Fabry-Pérot cavity resonance, which selects the lasing wavelength, and the laser gain bandwidth, which influences the threshold of the VCSEL, is shown to dominate nearly every aspect of VCSEL performance. Finally, the performance of 850. nm VCSELs is presented and the influence of various VCSEL parameters on the laser efficiency, threshold, transverse mode characteristics, and polarization are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSemiconductor Lasers
Subtitle of host publicationFundamentals and Applications
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Number of pages25
ISBN (Print)9780857091215
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Distributed Bragg reflector
  • Laser applications
  • Single transverse mode
  • Two-dimensional arrays
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting laser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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