Vector potential electromagnetics with generalized gauge for inhomogeneous media: Formulation

Weng Cho Chew, Weng Cho Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The mixed vector and scalar potential formulation is valid from quantum theory to classical electromagnetics. The present rapid development in quantum optics applications calls for electromagnetic solutions that straddle both the quantum and classical physics regimes. The vector potential formulation using A and Φ (or A-Φ formulation) is a good candidate to bridge these two regimes. Hence, there is a need to generalize this formulation to inhomogeneous media. A generalized gauge is suggested for solving electromagnetics problems in inhomogenous media that can be extended to the anistropic case. An advantage of the resulting equations is their absence of catastrophic breakdown at low-frequencies. Hence, the usual differential equation solvers can be used to solve them over a wide range of scales and bandwidth. It is shown that the interface boundary conditions from the resulting equations reduce to those of classical Maxwell's equations. Also, the classical Green's theorem can be extended to such a formulation, resulting in an extinction theorem and a surface equivalence principle similar to the classical case. Moreover, surface integral equation formulations can be derived for piecewise homogeneous scatterers. Furthermore, the integral equations neither exhibit the low-frequency catastrophe nor the frequency imbalance observed in the classical formulation using E-H fields. The matrix representation of the integral equation for a PEC (perfect electric conductor) scatterer is given.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-84
Number of pages16
JournalProgress in Electromagnetics Research
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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