Validity, invariance and responsiveness of a self-report measure of functional limitations and disability in multiple sclerosis

Robert W. Motl, Edward McAuley, Yoojin Suh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. This study examined the structural and external aspects of score validity for the abbreviated Late Life-Function and Disability Inventory (LL-FDI) as well as its longitudinal measurement invariance and responsiveness in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods.The sample included 292 individuals with MS who completed a battery of questionnaires on two occasions separated by 6 months. The battery included the abbreviated LL-FDI along with measures of mobility disability; neurological impairments; symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression and pain; health status; and quality of life. The data were analysed using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versions 16.0. Results.Confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural validity and longitudinal measurement invariance of the disability and functional limitations components of the abbreviated LL-FDI. MANOVA and bivariate correlations supported the external aspects of score validity based on differences in mean scores as a function of clinical MS course (relapsing vs. progressive) and level of mobility disability (mild vs. moderate mobility disability) and associations with measures of neurological impairments, symptoms, health status and QOL, respectively. ANOVA established the responsiveness (i.e., sensitivity for reflecting clinically important differences in health status across time) of the functional limitations and disability components of the abbreviated LL-FDI for detecting changes in mobility disability across 6-months. Conclusion.Such findings provide a new option for the measurement of functional limitations and disability using the abbreviated LL-FDI in persons with MS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1260-1271
Number of pages12
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation
Issue number15
StatePublished - 2010


  • Functional outcomes
  • Measurement
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation


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