Validation of the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire-Physical Education (PMQ-PE)

K Andrew R Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Amelia Mays Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstractpeer-review


Research stemming from occupational socialization theory has documented that physical education (PE) is a marginalized subject. As such, physical educators are often told implicitly and explicitly that their work does not matter to the mission of schooling. However, research has documented the importance of feeling as if one's work matters to job satisfaction and overall well-being. Building on Schieman and Taylor's (2001) general survey for perceived mattering in occupational settings, this study sought to create and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire- Physical Education (PMQ-PE) to examine the perceived mattering of PE teachers. Participants (N = 431) were PE teachers from elementary (n = 160; 37.1%), middle (n = 117; 27.1%), and high (n = 154; 35.7%) schools. They were split among men (n = 216; 50.1%) and women (n = 215; 49.9%), and the majority identified as Caucasian (n = 404; 93.7%). The average teacher was 44.00 years old (SD = 11.59), and most had a master's degree (59.1%). The 8 PMQ-PE items were adapted from Schieman and Taylor's (2001) survey, and it was hypothesized they would load on teacher matters (4 items) and PE matters (4 items) factors. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to examine convergent and divergent validity, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random subsample of 150 participants. The hypothesized 2-factor structure was found to be the best fit. The Teacher Matters and PE Matters subscales had good internal consistency (.87 and .88, respectively). Confirmatory factor analysis was next conducted with a separate subsample of 270 participants. The hypothesized factor structure was a food fit for the data, x2 (19) = 45.15, p , .001, Non-Normed Fit Index = .98, Comparative Fit Index = .99, root mean square error of approximation = .06, standardized root mean square residual = .03. Construct reliability was adequate for the Teacher Matters (AVE = .46; rc = .77) and PE Matters (AVE = .57; rc = .84) subscales. In support of convergent and divergent validity, the Teacher Matters and PE nMatters subscales correlated positively with resilience and negatively with the components of burnout. The results provide support for the factorial validity and reliability of the PMQ-PE. As scholars continue to make strides in understanding the lived experiences of PE teachers, the PMQ-PE should provide meaningful insight into the extent to which PE teachers feel as if they and their work matters. Perceptions of mattering may be useful in understanding PE teacher satisfaction, quality of life, and teaching effectiveness.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue numberS2
StatePublished - 2016


  • Discriminant analysis
  • Physical education
  • Public Health And Safety
  • Questionnaires
  • Teachers
  • Validity


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