Use of pigmented maize in both conventional dry-grind and modified processes using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme

Zhaoqin Wang, Haibo Huang, Elvira Gonzalez De Mejia, Qian Li, Vijay Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the dry-grind ethanol process, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct, which is primarily used as an ingredient in ruminant animal diets. Increasing the value of DDGS will improve the profitability of the dry-grind ethanol process. One way to increase DDGS value is to use pigmented maize as the feedstock for ethanol production. Pigmented maize is rich in anthocyanin content, and the anthocyanin imparts red, blue, and purple color to the grain. It is reported that anthocyanin would be absorbed by yeast cell walls during the fermentation process. The effects of anthocyanin on fermentation characteristics in the dry-grind process are not known. In this study, the effects of anthocyanin in conventional (conventional starch hydrolyzing enzymes) and modified (granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes [GSHE]) dry-grind processes were evaluated. The modified process using GSHE replaced high-temperature liquefaction. The ethanol conversion efficiencies of pigmented maize were comparable to that of yellow dent corn in both conventional (78.4 ± 0.5% for blue maize, 74.3 ± 0.4% for red maize, 81.2 ± 1.0% for purple maize, and 75.1 ± 0.2% for yellow dent corn) and modified dry-grind processes using GSHE (83.8 ± 0.8% for blue maize, 81.1 ± 0.3% for red maize, 93.5 ± 0.8% for purple maize, and 85.6 ± 0.1% for yellow dent corn). Total anthocyanin content in DDGS from the modified process was 1.4, 1.9, and 2.4 times of that from the conventional process for purple, red, and blue maize samples, respectively. These results indicated that pigmented maize rich in anthocyanin did not negatively affect the fermentation characteristics of the dry-grind process and that there was a potential to use pigmented maize in the dry-grind process, especially when using GSHE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)344-351
Number of pages8
JournalCereal Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Organic Chemistry


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