Use of hypertonic saline-dextran solution to resuscitate hypovolemic calves with diarrhea

Peter D Constable, Hani M. Gohar, Dawn E. Morin, John C. Thurmon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To determine effectiveness of a new and practical method for fluid resuscitation of dehydrated diarrheic calves. Design: Animals randomly allocated to 4 groups with appropriate controls. Animals: 16 healthy male dairy calves, 3 to 6 days old. Procedure: After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and hypovolemia were induced by administering milk replacer (33 ml/kg of body weight) and isotonic sucrose solution (2 g of sucrose in 19.5 ml of water/kg, PO) every 8 hours, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, IM) every 4 to 8 hours. Administration of milk replacer and furosemide was discontinued when calves became 6% dehydrated. Calves were then randomly allocated as: control (no treatment); hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD) solution (4 ml/kg, 2,400 mOsm/L NaCl in 6% dextran-70, administered once over 4 minutes, IV); isotonic alkalinizing oral electrolyte solution (55 ml/kg, PO, q 8 h); and HSD-oral electrolyte solution (combination of HSD and oral treatments). Calves were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results: Significant changes included moderate dehydration (8% body weight), marked lethargy, decreased cardiac output and plasma volume, and increased blood lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, sodium, and phosphate. Control calves continued to be lethargic and dehydrated, with significant increases in hematocrit and serum creatinine concentration. Increase in cardiac output and plasma volume was transient in the HSD group and waned by 2 to 8 hours after treatment. Oral electrolyte fluid administration caused slow and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit. Combined administration of HSD-oral electrolyte solution caused immediate and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves with IV HSD and oral electrolyte solution is superior to administration of either solution alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume57
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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