Use of electronic cigarettes and hookah in Brazil: a new and emerging landscape. The Covitel study, 2022

Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Fernando C. Wehrmeister, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos Sardinha, Pedro do Carmo Baumgratz de Paula, Tainá de Almeida Costa, Pedro Augusto Crespo, Pedro C. Hallal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current commercial cigarette smoking, as well as those of e-cigarette and hookah experimentation and current use among adults (≥ 18 years of age) in Brazil. Methods: This study was based on a countrywide cross-sectional telephone-based survey conducted in 2022. The sample was designed to be representative of the five macroregions in Brazil and included 1,800 individuals from each of the regions. Telephone numbers, using a random digit dialing procedure, were proportionally selected for each direct distance dialing code in each region and then electronically validated (i.e., 900 cell and 900 landline phone numbers per region). Information on current commercial cigarette smoking (regardless of frequency/amount), as well as lifetime history of or current e-cigarette and hookah use (regardless of amount), were collected. Results: The prevalence of lifetime history of e-cigarette and hookah use was identical (7.3%; 95% CI: 6.0-8.9), whereas the prevalence of current commercial cigarette smoking was 12.2% (95% CI: 10.4-14.1). Young adults (18-24 years) had the highest prevalence of e-cigarette experimentation (19.7%; 95% CI: 15.1-17.0) and hookah experimentation (17%; 95% CI: 12.2-23.2). E-cigarette and hookah use was more common in the Central-West region and among those with a high level of education, whereas current commercial cigarette smoking was more common among those with a lower level of education. Individuals who used the three forms of nicotine delivery corresponded to 1.5% of the sample (nearly 2 million individuals based on the estimated size of the Brazilian adult population). Conclusions: Surveillance is essential for the monitoring and prevention of these new forms of nicotine consumption.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20220290
JournalJornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Adults
  • Electronic nicotine delivery systems
  • Nicotine
  • Smoking water pipes
  • Tobacco products

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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