Unleashing the Performance of Self-Rolled-Up 3D Inductors via Deterministic Electroplating on Cylindrical Surfaces

Zhendong Yang, Apratim Khandelwal, Allen T. Wang, Kristen Nguyen, Scott Wicker, Yang Victoria Shao, Xiuling Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Internet-of-Things and Cyber-Physical-System applications demand compact power converters, which require inductors to have small footprints but considerable power handling abilities. 3D air-core tubular inductors fabricated using the self-rolled-up membrane (S-RuM) technology have demonstrated significantly higher inductance density compared to conventional planar structures. However, previous design options and associated performance are constrained by the resistive loss due to the thickness of the metal and magnetic coupling limited by the air core. Here, the study reports a post-rolling electroplating scheme aimed at enhancing the metal conductivity and core magnetic permeability in S-RuM inductors, all while maintaining their compact footprint. A DC resistance improvement of over 10X and an inductance enhancement of over 30X are achieved by the 3D S-RuM inductors, via parallel-processed Cu-electroplated strips on the cylindrical shells and partially permalloy-electroplated core. The improvement is projected to continue to improve as the entire core is filled. This advancement paves the way for scalable applications of this technology in ultra-compact, low-loss passive power electronics, such as converters and filters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2400092
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 22 2024


  • electroplating
  • inductors
  • miniaturization
  • on-chip
  • S-RuM
  • self-rolled-up membrane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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