Unique Flavanol-Anthocyanin Condensed Forms in Apache Red Purple Corn

Laura A. Chatham, Leslie West, Mark A. Berhow, Karl E. Vermillion, John A. Juvik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Anthocyanin pigments from purple corn are being explored as a potential alternative to artificial colorants and for their health-promoting properties. However, all pericarp-pigmented corn varieties examined to date primarily contain cyanidin-derived anthocyanins, which produce bluish-red or pink extracts. Here we describe the first pelargonidin-dominant pericarp-pigmented corn lines from the landrace Apache Red (AR). Anthocyanins were characterized from six AR families using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). From this, we identified two new flavanol-anthocyanin condensed forms in corn: catechin-(4,8)-pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside and afzelechin-(4,8)-pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, which were subsequently confirmed with NMR. Additionally, several apigenin-derived C-glycosyl flavones were identified in abundance. With a diverse flavonoid profile containing an array of different anthocyanin species and flavones, Apache Red will be an important line in which to study control of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10844-10854
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number41
StatePublished - Oct 17 2018


  • anthocyanin
  • flavanol-anthocyanin condensed forms
  • flavone
  • purple corn

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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