This paper describes the first coupling of a commercial capillary HPLC system with a diode array spectrophotometric detector and a custom-built nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow microprobe. The eluent from a 3-μm diameter C18 HPLC column is linked to a 500 MHz 1H-NMR microcoil probe with an observe volume of 1.1 μl. The separation and structurally-rich detection of a mixture of terpenoids under both isocratic and gradient solvent elution conditions is presented. The lowest limits of detection yet reported for capillary HPLC on-line measurement (i.e., 37 ng for α-pinene) are achieved with this system. The complementary nature of diode array and NMR detection allows stopped-flow data collection from analytes which would otherwise go unnoticed in continuous-flow NMR. Moreover, stopped-flow NMR data is presented for the detection of a trace (sub-nmol) impurity in the sample mixture. Since NMR signals degrade and shift during solvent gradients, flow injection analysis studies are conducted with injected solvent plugs differing in mobile phase composition. The NMR signal degradation accompanying these injections is largely due to the variance in chemical shift with the solvent composition rather than to changes in magnetic susceptibility of the solvent. Characterization of such effects enables the development of improved NMR probes for the coupling of capillary HPLC and NMR.
- Capillary liquid chromatography
- Detection, LC
- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry