The latest research findings on stress rotations caused by moving wheel loads and their effects on permanent deformation or rut accumulation in pavement granular layers are presented. Realistic pavement stresses induced by moving wheel loads were examined in the unbound aggregate base and subbase layers, and the significant effects of rotation of principal stress axes were indicated for a proper characterization of the permanent deformation behavior. To account for the rutting performances of especially thick granular layers, a comprehensive set of repeated load triaxial tests was conducted in the laboratory. Triaxial test data were obtained and analyzed from testing aggregates under various realistic in situ stress paths caused by moving wheel loading. Permanent deformation characterization models were then developed on the basis of the experimental test data to include the static and dynamic stress states and the slope of stress path loading. The models that also considered the stress path slope variations predicted the stress path dependency of permanent deformation accumulation best. In addition, multiple stress path tests conducted to simulate the extension-compression-extension type of rotating stress states under a wheel pass gave much higher permanent strains than those of the compression-only single path tests. The findings indicated actual traffic loading simulated by the multiple path tests could cause greater permanent deformations or rutting damage, especially in the loose base or subbase, when compared with deformations measured from a dynamic plate loading or a constant confining pressure type laboratory test.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering