Ultrathin and Deformable Graphene Etch Mask for Fabrication of 3D Microstructures

Jiwoo Kim, Donghoon Moon, Hyunchul Kim, Arend M. van der Zande, Gwan Hyoung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication techniques play a crucial role across various research fields. These techniques enable the creation of functional 3D structures on the microscale, unlocking possibilities for diverse applications. However, conventional fabrication methods have limits in producing complex 3D structures, which require numerous fabrication steps that increase the costs. Graphene is an atomically thin material known for its deformability and impermeability to small gases and molecules, including reactive gases like XeF2. These features make graphene a potential candidate as an etch mask for 3D microfabrication. Here, we report the fabrication of various 3D microstructures using graphene etch masks directly grown and patterned on a Si substrate. The patterned graphene deforms and wraps the etched structures, allowing for the fabrication of complicated 3D microstructures, such as mushroom-like and step-like microstructures. As a practical demonstration of the graphene etch mask, we fabricate an omniphobic surface of reentrant 3D structures on a Si substrate. Our work provides a method for fabricating complex 3D microstructures using a graphene etch mask, contributing to advancements in etching and fabrication processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12325-12332
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Issue number19
StatePublished - May 14 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D microfabrication
  • etching selectivity
  • graphene etch mask
  • graphene wrapping
  • omniphobic surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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