Ultrasonography of the bovine mammary gland

Steven S. Trostle, Robert T. O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Ultrasonography is the most definitive and least invasive modality for imaging the bovine mammary gland. Ultrasonographic imaging is easy to perform in the gland, and ultrasonographic contrast studies may be accomplished with saline when indicated. Familiarity with the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the mammary gland and teat is essential for diagnosing pathologic conditions. Ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing pathologic conditions in both the teat and gland, including supernumerary and webbed (or conjoined) teats, atresia, fibrosis, obstructive lesions, fistulas, and mastitis. In addition, ultrasonographic examination augments surgical planning and therapy as well as follow-up. This article reviews ultrasound equipment, including standard features and image-storage capabilities; imaging techniques, including patient preparation and the use of standoff devices; ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine mammary gland, including the gland cistern, teat cistern, and teat wall; and the application of ultrasonography in pathologic conditions of the bovine mammary gland.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S64-S71
JournalCompendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian
Issue number2 PART 1
StatePublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • General Veterinary


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