Ultrasonographic imaging of the sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) intertarsal joint

Kathleen A. Linn, Alison S. Templer, Joanne R. Paul-Murphy, Robert T. O'Brien, Barry K. Hartup, Julia A. Langenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tendon ossification in the crus and tarsometatarsal regions of cranes makes ultrasonography difficult everywhere except for joints, where ossification is absent. Normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the adult Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) intertarsal joint is described on the basis of ultrasonography that was performed on the limbs of a cadaver, which were dissected and cross-sectioned subsequently, to correlate ultrasonographic images with anatomic structures. Intertarsal joints of five normal sandhill cranes and two cranes with known intertarsal abnormalities were then imaged bilaterally in transverse and sagittal planes. Ultrasonographic imaging can be used to evaluate the soft-tissue structures on the dorsal and plantar aspects of the intertarsal joint of cranes, and it is a useful adjunct to physical and radiographic examination for localizing injuries to this area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)144-152
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2003


  • Avian limb anatomy
  • Grus species
  • Intertarsal joint
  • Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis)
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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