Our work involves understanding the chemical reaction dynamics of nanotechnology energetic materials on the time and length scales of individual molecules or nanoparticles. These types of measurements provide insights into fundamental mechanisms and make a close connection to modem atomistic simulation methods. We are especially interested in the relationships between performance and nanostructure. We have developed a number of diagnostic instruments in our laboratory that can be used to probe chemical reaction dynamics, reaction propagation over short length scales, and explosive performance. Some recent results on energetic materials containing Al nanoparticles and either nitrocellulose (NC) or Teflon oxidizers are presented.