Two-headed coins or Kandinskys: White racial identification

Cara Wong, Grace E. Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Racial identity means different things to members of different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. However, while the study of race and politics is often the study of White racial attitudes (Dawson & Cohen, 2003), research on racial identity almost always refers to non-White identity. This article addresses this hole in the literature by examining the extent and effects of White identity. We compare White identification and Black identification using National Election Studies data (1972-2000) and examine the relationships between racial identity and racial and political attitudes. This study adds a missing case to the study of racial identity, tests how well the theories about the concept travel across cases, and highlights the need for more frequent studies of the racial identity of all groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)699-720
Number of pages22
JournalPolitical Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Measurement
  • Race
  • Racial identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Philosophy
  • Political Science and International Relations


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