Two functional components of the hippocampal memory system

Howard Eichenbaum, Tim Otto, Neal J. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is considerable evidence that the hippocampal system contributes both to (1) the temporary maintenance of memories and to (2) the processing of a particular type of memory representation. The findings on amnesia suggest that these two distinguishing features of hippocampal memory processing are orthogonal. Together with anatomical and physiological data, the neuropsychological findings support a model of cortico-hippocampal interactions in which the temporal and representational properties of hippocampal memory processing are mediated separately. We propose that neocortical association areas maintain shortterm memories for specific items and events prior to hippocampal processing as well as providing the final repositories of long-term memory. The parahippocampal region supports intermediate-term storage of individual items, and the hippocampal formation itself mediates an organization of memories according to relevant relationships among items. Hippocampal-cortical interactions produce (i) strong and persistent memories for events, including their constituent elements and the relationships among them, and (ii) a capacity to express memories flexibly across a wide range of circumstances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-472
Number of pages24
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1994


  • amnesia
  • entorhinal cortex
  • hippocampus
  • learning
  • memory
  • parahippocampal region
  • representation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Physiology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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