Twenty-five Years of Learning with Pedagogical Agents: History, Barriers, and Opportunities

Robert F. Siegle, Noah L. Schroeder, H. Chad Lane, Scotty D. Craig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pedagogical agents are on-screen characters that help facilitate learning in a virtual or mixed-reality setting. The research on pedagogical agents has shifted focus since their creation, from understanding their underlying principles, identifying their potential roles and usage, and recently finetuning their design for applied practice. This paper explores the history of pedagogical agents and summarizes the current state of knowledge. Once the current state of pedagogical agents is established, barriers and opportunities are discussed to suggest how researchers can best improve pedagogical agents and their implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)851-864
Number of pages14
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Conversational agents
  • Pedagogical agents
  • Virtual humans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


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