Turbulent flow of liquid steel and argon bubbles in slide-gate tundish nozzles: Part II. Effect of operation conditions and nozzle design

Hua Bai, Brian G. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume model, developed and validated in Part I of this two-part article, is employed to study steady-state two-phase turbulent flow of liquid steel and argon bubbles through slide-gate tundish nozzles. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects of gas injection, slide-gate orientation, casting speed, gate opening, bubble size, port angle, and port shape on the flow pattern and characteristics of the jet exiting the nozzle port. Argon gas injection bends the jet angle upward, enhances the turbulence level, and reduces the size of the backflow zone. Gas injection becomes less influential with increasing casting speed. The off-center blocking effect of the slide gate generates an asymmetric flow that changes with the gate orientation. The 0-deg gate orientation creates the worst biased flow between the two ports. The 90-deg orientation generates significant swirl and directs the jet slightly toward one of the wide faces. The 45-deg orientation generates both types of asymmetry and, thus, appears undesirable. The horizontal jet angle indicates asymmetric flow in the horizontal plane. It increases with decreasing gate opening and decreasing gas injection rate and ranges from 3 to 5 deg. Most jet characteristics reach their maximum or minimum values near the critical opening of 60 pct (linear). Larger bubbles exert a greater influence on the flow pattern. The vertical jet angle becomes steeper with a steeper port angle and more slender port shape. These results will be useful for nozzle design and for future modeling of flow in the mold.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50
Pages (from-to)269-284
Number of pages16
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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