We show that evaporating lead (Pb) directly on graphene can create high-yield, high-quality tunnel probes, and we demonstrate high magnetic field/low temperature spectroscopy using these probes. Comparisons of Pb, Al, and Ti/Au probes show that after oxidation a well-formed self-limited tunnel barrier is created only between the Pb and the graphene. Tunneling spectroscopy using the Pb probes manifests energy-dependent features such as scattering resonances and localization behavior and can thus be used to probe the microscopic electronics of graphene.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)