Tumor necrosis factor-α promotes lipolysis and reduces insulin sensitivity by activating nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in primary bovine adipocytes

Xiliang Du, Mingchao Liu, Wenjun Tai, Hao Yu, Xue Hao, Juan J. Loor, Qianming Jiang, Zhiyuan Fang, Xinxing Gao, Minghe Fan, Wenwen Gao, Lin Lei, Yuxiang Song, Zhe Wang, Cai Zhang, Guowen Liu, Xinwei Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Sustained lipolysis and insulin resistance increase the risk of metabolic dysfunction in dairy cows during the transition period. Proinflammatory cytokines are key regulators of adipose tissue metabolism in nonruminants, but biological functions of these molecules in ruminants are not well known. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could affect insulin sensitivity and lipolysis in bovine adipocytes as well as the underlying mechanisms. Bovine adipocytes (obtained from the omental and mesenteric adipose depots) isolated from 5 Holstein female calves (1 d old) with similar body weight (median: 36.9 kg, range: 35.5–41.2 kg) were differentiated and used for (1) treatment with different concentrations of TNF-α (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL) for 12 h; (2) pretreatment with 10 μM lipolytic agonist isoproterenol (ISO) for 3 h, followed by treatment with or without 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 12 h; and (3) pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 (20 μM for 2 h) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor BAY 11–7082 (10 μM for 1 h) followed by treatment with or without 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 12 h. The TNF-α increased glycerol content in supernatant, decreased triglyceride content and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B suggesting activation of lipolysis and impairment of insulin sensitivity. The TNF-α reduced cell viability, upregulated mRNA abundance of Caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptosis marker, and increased activity of Caspase 3. In addition, increased phosphorylation of NF-κB and JNK, upregulation of mRNA abundance of interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNFA, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) suggested that TNF-α activated NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. Furthermore, ISO plus TNF-α-activated NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway to a greater extent than TNF-α alone. Combining TNF-α and ISO aggravated TNF-α-induced apoptosis, insulin insensitivity and lipolysis. In the absence of TNF-α, inhibition of NF-κB and JNK did not alter glycerol content in supernatant, triglyceride content or insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. In the presence of TNF-α, inhibition of NF-κB and JNK alleviated TNF-α-induced apoptosis, insulin insensitivity and lipolysis. Overall, TNF-α impairs insulin sensitivity and induces lipolysis and apoptosis in bovine adipocytes, which may be partly mediated by activation of NF-κB and JNK. Thus, the data suggested that NF-κB and JNK are potential therapeutic targets for alleviating lipolysis dysregulation and insulin resistance in adipocytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • adipocyte
  • insulin resistance
  • lipid mobilization
  • proinflammatory cytokine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Genetics
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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