The design of single mode and multimode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was analyzed. The photonic crystal VCSELs that operate in higher order defect modes were produced by controlling design parameters of the photonic crystal pattern. It was shown that the transverse modal behavior is consistent with the predictions of a theoretical model in which the etching depth dependence of the air holes of the photonic crystals was considered. The lower limit of optical confinement required from the photonic crystal pattern to influence the output beam of the laser was determined.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)