Transverse mode control in proton-implanted and oxide-confined VCSELs via patterned dielectric anti-phase filters

Benjamin Kesler, Thomas O'brien, John M. Dallesasse

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


A novel method for controlling the transverse lasing modes in both proton implanted and oxide-confined verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a multi-layer, patterned, dielectric anti-phase (DAP) filter is presented. Using a simple photolithographic liftoff process, dielectric layers are deposited and patterned on individual VCSELs to modify (increase or decrease) the mirror reflectivity across the emission aperture via anti-phase reflections, creating spatially-dependent threshold material gain. The shape of the dielectric pattern can be tailored to overlap with specific transverse VCSEL modes or subsets of transverse modes to either facilitate or inhibit lasing by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the threshold modal gain. A silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) anti-phase filter is used to achieve a single-fundamental-mode, continuous-wave output power greater than 4.0 mW in an oxide-confined VCSEL at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. A filter consisting of SiO2 and TiO2 is used to facilitate injection-current-insensitive fundamental mode and lower order mode lasing in proton implanted VCSELs at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. Higher refractive index dielectric materials such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) can be used to increase the effectiveness of the anti-phase filter on proton implanted devices by reducing the threshold modal gain of any spatially overlapping modes. This additive, non-destructive method allows for mode selection at any lasing wavelength and for any VCSEL layer structure without the need for semiconductor etching or epitaxial regrowth. It also offers the capability of designing a filter based upon available optical coating materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI
EditorsKent D. Choquette, Chun Lei
ISBN (Electronic)9781510606852
StatePublished - 2017
EventVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Feb 1 2017Feb 2 2017

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


OtherVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XXI
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Anti-phase reflection
  • Dielectric filter
  • Mode control
  • Single mode
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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