Transverse Injection from Circular and Elliptic Nozzles into a Supersonic Crossflow

M. R. Gruber, A. S. Nejad, T. H. Chen, J. C. Dutton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An investigation of sonic transverse injection from circular and elliptic nozzles into a supersonic crossflow using planar Rayleigh/Mie scattering is reported. Instantaneous images allow examination of the structural details, whereas ensemble-averaged images provide transverse penetration and lateral spread data for each jet. Standard deviation images produce information regarding the large-scale mixing/entrainment and reveal the mixing zones. Results show a highly three-dimensional near-field interaction dominated by shear-layer eddies and a counter-rotating vortex pair. Ensemble-averaged results show that the elliptic jet spreads more rapidly in the lateral direction than the circular jet, confirming that an axis-switching phenomenon is present. Near-field transverse penetration data collapse well with low-speed scaling conventions; however, the jet produced by the elliptic nozzle suffers a 20% reduction in penetration compared to the circular jet. Compressibility level does not play a significant role in the average penetration or spread of these jets, although it strongly affects the mixing/entrainment and large-scale structure. Analysis of mixing potential from the standard deviation images indicates that the low and high convective Mach number Mc injection cases are significantly different; low Mc injection yields better large-scale mixing potential than high Mc injection regardless of the injector geometry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-457
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Propulsion and Power
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science


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