Transmission scanning electron microscopy: Defect observations and image simulations

Patrick G. Callahan, Jean Charles Stinville, Eric R. Yao, McLean P. Echlin, Michael S. Titus, Marc De Graef, Daniel S. Gianola, Tresa M. Pollock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The new capabilities of a FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector for defect characterization have been studied in parallel with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Stacking faults and dislocations have been characterized in strontium titanate, a polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy and a single crystal cobalt-base material. Imaging modes that are similar to conventional TEM (CTEM) bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) and STEM are explored, and some of the differences due to the different accelerating voltages highlighted. Defect images have been simulated for the transmission scanning electron microscopy (TSEM) configuration using a scattering matrix formulation, and diffraction contrast in the SEM is discussed in comparison to TEM. Interference effects associated with conventional TEM, such as thickness fringes and bending contours are significantly reduced in TSEM by using a convergent probe, similar to a STEM imaging modality, enabling individual defects to be imaged clearly even in high dislocation density regions. Beyond this, TSEM provides significant advantages for high throughput and dynamic in-situ characterization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-61
Number of pages13
StatePublished - Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • STEM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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