Transmission electron microscopy investigations on the growth of tin whiskers from CeSn3 substrate

Cai Fu Li, Zhi Quan Liu, Jian Ku Shang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Traditional transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimen of CeSn 3 was prepared and observed intermittently, and large amount of tin whiskers were found growing from the specimen due to the selective oxidation at room ambient. This method enables in-situ TEM study of tin whiskers without mechanical handling or focus ion beam (FIB) sampling. The growth rate of tin whisker could be more than 0.28nm/s, which was very fast than other reports. A reaction formula was proposed to summarize the oxidation of CeSn3 at ambient condition. According to the formula, the reaction resulted in Ce(OH)3 rather than reported CeO2 at our room ambient condition (temperature: 18±2°C, relative humidity: 20±5%). The released tin atoms provide the source for tin whisker growth. Meanwhile, the oxidation induced 43% volume expansion, which introduced the compressive stress as the driven force for whisker growth. Tin atoms released from selective oxidation would diffuse or add to the whisker root under the compressive stress gradient. A growth model was proposed to illustrate the whisker growth process on Ce containing lead free solders, which would help to understand the mechanism of whisker phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationICEPT-HDP 2011 Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging
Pages903-906
Number of pages4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes
Event2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, ICEPT-HDP 2011 - Shanghai, China
Duration: Aug 8 2011Aug 11 2011

Publication series

NameICEPT-HDP 2011 Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging

Other

Other2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, ICEPT-HDP 2011
Country/TerritoryChina
CityShanghai
Period8/8/118/11/11

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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