Transient model of preheating a submerged entry nozzle

Y. Li, B. G. Thomas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Adequate preheating of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) is important to avoid problems such as cracks and skulling, and depends on torch configuration, fuel, SEN geometry and other factors. A steady-state axisymmetric computational model of the flame, combustion reactions, and air entrainment has been combined with a transient model of heat transfer in the refractory walls to simulate the SEN preheating process. The model predictions match with experimental measurements of preheating with a natural-gas torch, including temperature profile across the flame, temperature histories measured inside the SEN wall, the flame shape, and the SEN outer wall temperature distribution. A simple spread-sheet model is introduced to accurately predict flame temperature, heat transfer coefficients and product properties for simple models of SEN preheating, given the air entrainment predicted from the combustion model. The results reveal the times required to reach adequate preheating temperature. Moreover, optimal positioning of the torch above the top of the SEN decreases ambient air entrainment, which increases the temperatures and shortens preheating time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAISTech 2014 - Proceedings of the Iron and Steel Technology Conference
PublisherAssociation for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781935117421
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventAISTech 2014 Iron and Steel Technology Conference - Indianapolis, IN, United States
Duration: May 5 2014May 8 2014

Publication series

NameAISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1551-6997


OtherAISTech 2014 Iron and Steel Technology Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityIndianapolis, IN


  • Combustion
  • Contact resistance
  • Flame temperature
  • Fuel component
  • Nozzle
  • Preheating
  • Refractory
  • Torch configuration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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