Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica)

Clare L. Casteel, Bridget F. O'Neill, Jorge A. Zavala, Damla D. Bilgin, May R. Berenbaum, Evan H. DeLucia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The accumulation of CO2 and O3 in the troposphere alters phytochemistry which in turn influences the interactions between plants and insects. Using microarray analysis of field-grown soybean (Glycine max), we found that the number of transcripts in the leaves affected by herbivory by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) was greater when plants were grown under elevated CO2, elevated O3 and the combination of elevated CO2 plus elevated O3 than when grown in ambient atmosphere. The effect of herbivory on transcription diminished strongly with time (<1% of genes were affected by herbivory after 3 weeks), and elevated CO2 interacted more strongly with herbivory than elevated O 3. The majority of transcripts affected by elevated O3 were related to antioxidant metabolism. Constitutive levels and the induction by herbivory of key transcripts associated with defence and hormone signalling were down-regulated under elevated CO2; 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC) synthase, lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), chalcone synthase (CHS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and cysteine protease inhibitor (CystPI) were lower in abundance compared with levels under ambient conditions. By suppressing the ability to mount an effective defence, elevated CO2 may decrease resistance of soybean to herbivory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-434
Number of pages16
JournalPlant, Cell and Environment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Defence
  • Ethylene
  • Gene expression
  • Global change
  • Herbivory
  • Jasmonic acid
  • Microarray
  • Octadecanoid pathway
  • Plant-insect interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science


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