Trait schizotypy and the psychosis prodrome: Current standard assessment of extended psychosis spectrum phenotypes

Julia Katharina Pfarr, Tina Meller, Ulrika Evermann, Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R. Kwapil, Igor Nenadić

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Schizotypy has become an increasingly important construct for elaborating psychotic disorders that vary along the schizophrenic spectrum. However, different schizotypy inventories vary in conceptual approach and measurement. In addition, commonly used schizotypy scales have been seen as qualitatively different from screening instruments for prodromal schizophrenia like the Prodromal Questionnaire-16 (PQ-16). Our study investigated the psychometric properties of three schizotypy questionnaires (the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief, Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, and the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale) as well as the PQ-16 in a cohort of 383 non-clinical subjects. We initially evaluated their factor structure using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test a newly proposed composition of factors. PCA results support a three-factor structure of schizotypy that accounts for 71 % of the total variance, but also shows cross-loadings of some schizotypy subscales. CFA of the newly composed schizotypy factors (together with an added neuroticism factor) shows good fit. Analyses including the PQ-16 indicate considerable overlap with measures of trait schizotypy, suggesting that the PQ-16 might not be quantitatively or qualitatively different from schizotypy measurements. Taken together, results indicate that there is good support for a three-factor structure of schizotypy but also that different schizotypy measurements grasp facets of schizotypy differently. This points towards the need for an integrative approach for assessing the construct of schizotypy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)208-217
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Factor analysis
  • Prodrome
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Schizotypy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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