Dramatic microstructure changes in equity markets have made standard liquidity measures less accurate proxies for trading costs. We develop trade-time liquidity measures that reflect per-dollar price impacts of fixed-dollar volumes. Our measures better capture institutional trading costs and better explain the cross-section of returns than do standard measures, especially in recent years. Despite improvements in measures of market quality, expected trading costs have explanatory power for the cross-section of expected returns: we obtain monthly liquidity premium estimates of 5.3 bp for expected returns and 2.4 bp for risk-adjusted returns. Estimated premiums rise after the financial crisis and remain high thereafter.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Economics and Econometrics