Towards Translation of Discrete Frequency Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Digital Histopathology of Clinical Biopsy Samples

Saumya Tiwari, Jai Raman, Vijaya Reddy, Andrew Ghetler, Richard P. Tella, Yang Han, Christopher R. Moon, Charles D. Hoke, Rohit Bhargava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging has been widely tested as a tool for stainless digital histology of biomedical specimens, including for the identification of infiltration and fibrosis in endomyocardial biopsy samples to assess transplant rejection. A major barrier in clinical translation has been the slow speed of imaging. To address this need, we tested and report here the viability of using high speed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) imaging to obtain stain-free biochemical imaging in cardiovascular samples collected from patients. Images obtained by this method were classified with high accuracy by a Bayesian classification algorithm trained on FT-IR imaging data as well as on DFIR data. A single spectral feature correlated with instances of fibrosis, as identified by the pathologist, highlights the advantage of the DFIR imaging approach for rapid detection. The speed of digital pathologic recognition was at least 16 times faster than the fastest FT-IR imaging instrument. These results indicate that a fast, on-site identification of fibrosis using IR imaging has potential for real time assistance during surgeries. Further, the work describes development and applications of supervised classifiers on DFIR imaging data, comparing classifiers developed on FT-IR and DFIR imaging modalities and identifying specific spectral features for accurate identification of fibrosis. This addresses a topic of much debate on the use of training data and cross-modality validity of IR measurements. Together, the work is a step toward addressing a clinical diagnostic need at acquisition time scales that make IR imaging technology practical for medical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10183-10190
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 18 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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