Large collections of electronic clinical records today provide us with a vast source of information on medical practice. However, the utilization of those data for exploratory analysis to support clinical decisions is still limited. Extracting useful patterns from such data is particularly challenging because it is longitudinal, sparse and heterogeneous. In this paper, we propose a Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) based framework using a convolutional approach for open-ended temporal pattern discovery over large collections of clinical records. We call the method One-Sided Convolutional NMF (OSC-NMF). Our framework can mine common as well as individual shift-invariant temporal patterns from heterogeneous events over different patient groups, and handle sparsity as well as scalability problems well. Furthermore, we use an event matrix based representation that can encode quantitatively all key temporal concepts including order, concurrency and synchronicity. We derive efficient multiplicative update rules for OSC-NMF, and also prove theoretically its convergence. Finally, the experimental results on both synthetic and real world electronic patient data are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.