Toward Human-Centered Design of Automated Vehicles: A Naturalistic Brake Policy

Yalda Rahmati, Arezoo Samimi Abianeh, Mahmood Tabesh, Alireza Talebpour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While safety is the ultimate goal in designing Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs), current automotive safety standards fail to explicitly define rules and regulations that ensure the safety of CAVs or those interacting with such vehicles. This study investigates CAV safety in mixed traffic environments with both human-driven and automated vehicles, focusing particularly on rear-end collisions at intersections. The central hypothesis is that the primary reason behind these crashes is the potential mismatch between CAVs’ braking decisions and human drivers’ expectations. To test this hypothesis, various Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, along with specialized statistical methods are adopted to learn and model the braking behavior of human drivers at intersections and compare the results to that of CAVs. Findings suggest systematical differences in CAVs’ and humans’ braking trajectories, revealing a mismatch between their braking patterns. Accordingly, a Markovian decision modeling framework is adopted to design a novel CAV braking profile that ensures 1) compatibility with human expectation, and 2) safe and comfortable maneuvers by CAVs in mixed driving environments. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate the development of higher levels of vehicle automation by providing guidelines to prevent rear-end collisions caused by existing differences in CAVs’ and humans’ braking strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number683223
JournalFrontiers in Future Transportation
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Markov decision process
  • braking profile
  • connected automated vehicles
  • human drivers
  • intersection
  • neural networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Urban Studies


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