Objective: To describe the complications and outcome after total prostatectomy in dogs with histologically confirmed prostatic carcinoma. Study Design: Multi-institutional retrospective case series. Animals: 25 client-owned dogs. Methods: Medical records of dogs undergoing total prostatectomy were reviewed from 2004 to 2016. Data retrieved included signalment, presenting signs, preoperative clinical findings, laboratory data, diagnostic imaging, surgical technique, histologic diagnosis, postoperative complications, occurrence of postoperative metastasis, and survival. Results: Twenty-five dogs underwent total prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. Urinary anastomotic techniques included urethrourethral anastomosis in 14 dogs, cystourethral anastomosis in 9 dogs, ureterocolonic anastomosis in 1 dog, and anastomosis between the bladder neck and penile urethra in 1 dog. All dogs survived to discharge. Fifteen dogs were diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma, 8 dogs with prostatic adenocarcinoma, 1 with prostatic cystadenocarcinoma, and 1 with an undifferentiated carcinoma. Permanent postoperative urinary incontinence was present in 8 of 23 dogs. The median survival time was shorter in dogs with extracapsular tumor extension compared with those with intracapsular tumors. The overall median survival time was 231 days (range, 24-1255), with 1- and 2-year survival rates equal to 32% and 12%, respectively. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Total prostatectomy, combined with adjunct therapies, prolongs survival and lowers complication rates compared to previous reports of dogs with prostatic carcinoma. It should be noted, however, that case selection likely played a significant role in postoperative outcome.
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