Tin removal by an annular surface wave plasma antenna in an extreme ultraviolet lithography source

Dren Qerimi, Andrew C. Herschberg, Gianluca Panici, Parker Hays, Tyler Pohlman, David N. Ruzic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tin contamination of the collector mirror surface remains one of the crucial issues of EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) sources, directly impacting the availability of the tool. Hydrogen plasma-based tin removal processes employ hydrogen radicals and ions to interact with tin deposits to form gaseous tin hydride (SnH4), which can be removed through pumping. An annular surface wave plasma (SWP) source developed at the University of Illinois - Urbana Champaign is integrated into the cone and perimeter of the collection mirror for in situ tin removal. The SWP is characterized by high ion and radical densities, low electron temperature, and local generation where etching is needed. This method has the potential to significantly reduce downtime and increase mirror lifetime. Radical probe measurements show hydrogen radical densities in the order of 1019 m-3, while Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of up to 6 eV and plasma densities on the order of 1017-18 m-3. The generated ions are essential to the tin cleaning and have sufficiently low energy to cause no damage to the collector capping layer. Tin etch rates of up to 270 nm/min were observed in a variety of experimental conditions, including various powers, pressures, flowrates, and temperatures. The high etch rates demonstrated in this study exceed the expected contamination rate of the EUV source.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113302
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 21 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Tin removal by an annular surface wave plasma antenna in an extreme ultraviolet lithography source'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this