Timing of breast cancer surgery, menstrual phase, and prognosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Hillary Klonoff-Cohen, Ruopeng An, Theodora Fries, Jennifer Le, Georg E. Matt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: For over 25 years, there has been a debate revolving around the timing of breast cancer surgery, menstrual cycle, and prognosis. Methods: This systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the body of evidence in an effort to inform evidence-based practice. A keyword and reference search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science to identify human studies that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 58 studies (48 international and 10 U.S.-based) were identified. We provided a narrative summary on study findings and conducted a meta-analysis on a subset of studies where quantitative information was available. Results: Findings from both qualitative and quantitative analyses were inconclusive regarding performing breast cancer surgery around a specific phase of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Based on the Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence is insufficient to recommend a change in current primary breast cancer surgery practice based on menstrual phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016


  • Breast cancer
  • Luteal phase
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Premenopausal
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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