Through-thickness frontal polymerization: Process development and optimization

S. Vyas, N. A. Parikh, T. C. Price, D. P. Patel, T. B. Le, P. H. Geubelle, N. R. Sottos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Current methods for the manufacture of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are energy intensive, time consuming, and have adverse effects on the environment. Frontal polymerization (FP) is an out-of-autoclave, self-sustaining cure process garnering significant adoption by enabling rapid and energy-efficient manufacture of FRPCs. Prior FP-based manufacture of FRPCs rely on in-plane triggers to initiate the reaction. In the present study, we adopt through-thickness curing of carbon FRPCs with emphasis on the energy input required and the resulting composite properties. High energy input resulted in high glass transition temperature (Tg=156 °C), fiber volume fraction (Vf=65%), and low void content (Vv≈0). Computational modeling and optimization complement the experiments with focus on further reducing the energy whilst maintaining the favorable properties achieved at high energy inputs. A 27.5% reduction in energy resulted while maintaining similar performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108084
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
StatePublished - May 2024


  • Carbon fibers (A)
  • Frontal polymerization (E)
  • Modeling (C)
  • Polymer-matrix composites (A)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials


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